Sunscreen Protection Explained

Sunscreen Protection ExplainedSunlight is comprised of visible light, which we can see, and ultraviolet light, which we cannot see. There are two types of ultraviolet light, UVA and UVB. UVA or ultraviolet A rays can penetrate through glass and cause tanning and potential damage to the deep layers of the skin. UVB or ultraviolet B rays are responsible for causing a sunburn.

UVB rays are most intense from 10 am to 2 pm, stronger in summer months, at higher altitudes, and at geographic locations closer to the equator. Unprotected exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays causes skin damage and put at an increased risk for skin cancer. A sun protection program is a preventative measure against these skin conditions. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued regulations of sunscreen products.

Understanding Sun Protection Factor (SPF)

SPF is the measurement of protection from ultraviolet rays. The SPF level is a relative measure of the amount of sun protection provided by the sunscreen product. Contrary to what most people think, it is not a measurement of how well a product can protect a consumer from sunburn.

To maintain skin health, dermatologists recommend using sunscreen with high SPF levels and to apply it correctly.

Choosing the Best Sunscreen Product

Choosing the Best Sunscreen ProductMedical experts recommend reading the list of ingredients in sunscreen products. Broad spectrum coverage against harmful UVA and UVB rays is provided by products which contain avobenzone, ecamsule, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends applying five to six teaspoons of sunscreen to cover the entire body. Consumers are advised to reapply the product every two hours during periods of prolonged sun exposure.

Reapplication is essential for optimum protection and should be done after swimming and any physical activity that results in heavy sweating or rubbing off of the product. Fair-skinned individuals are more likely to absorb more UV radiation than individuals with darker skin, even under the same conditions.

For best results, choose sunscreen products appropriate for your activities. If you keep an active lifestyle, be sure to choose products that are water- and sweat-resistant. Consumers with sensitive skin should use sunscreens that are fragrance, oil, and PABA-free (e.g. Tizo SPF 35 and TiZo SPF 58)

Sun Protection PlanRegulations on Sunscreen Products

The  FDA regulations on sunscreen products and changes to product labeling require manufacturers to provide information about UVA screening and to refrain from using the terms such as waterproof, all-day protections, and sunblock on labels.

Futhermore, a new warning statement is required in the drug fact box on all sunscreen products. The warning is “UV exposure from the sun increases the risk of skin cancer, premature skin aging, and other skin damage.”

A Sun Protection Plan

The amount of UV radiation that an individual is exposed to is dependent upon length of exposure, time of day, geographic location, and weather conditions. The goal of a sun protection plan is to decrease UV exposure. This includes limiting sun exposure, wearing clothes that provide sun protection,  and the proper use of sunscreen products.

Rejudicare – Medical Skin Care Treatment for Aging Skin

Retinol SRXOne of the most potent forms of Vitamin A, Retinol SRX offers a host of protective and rejuvenating benefits on the skin. With regular use, it improves the skin’s elasticity by strenthening the epidermis and refining the stratum corneum.

Retinol also stimulates the synthesis of collagen and the formation of hyaluronic acid in addition to protecting the skin from damaging free radicals, making Retinol SRX one of the most effective anti-wrinkle agent in the market.

Hexacleanse Hexacleanse with Hexamidine is a mild cleanser with deep cleansing properties that suits even the most sensitive skin types. Unlike soap, this non-drying formula reduces bacterial count and wards off bacterial, yeast, and fungal infections without irritating the skin.


2CRM Skin Balancing Anti-Wrinkle Serum with Vitamins C, E and Peptides. This unique and lightweight skin care formula is the solution to the visible signs of skin aging. It is enriched with vitamins that reduces the appearance of deep wrinkles and fine lines. It also evens out the skin tone and improves the skin’s surface texture, giving  your firmer, healthier, and young-looking skin. The 2CRM anti-wrinkle serum is hypoallergenic and fast-absorbing, making it an essential addition to your anti-aging skin care regime.

The main ingredients of the 2CRM serum are:

  • Vitamin C – The 2CRM Anti-Wrinkle Serum has both Fast-acting Pure (L-ascorbic acid) Vitamin C and sustained release AAP, known to neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C also promotes collagen repair and cross-linking. A known tyrosinase-inhibitor, Vitamin C reduces melanin resulting in a brighter, balanced complexion.
  • Vitamin E – Rejudicare’s anti-wrinke serum also contains Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant and free-radical scavenger proven to have anti-inflammatory properties. The synergistic effect of Vitamin E with ascorbic acid protects the skin from photoaging and oxidative damage.

Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

Diabetic retinopathy screening

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common eye complications of diabetes, making eye care for those with diabetes an everyday concern.

70% of people with diabetes will develop changes in their eyes within 15 years of diagnosis and the longer they have diabetes the more likely they are to develop diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is the most serious condition associated with diabetes. It is one of the leading causes of blindness and occurs when the tiny blood vessels of the retina are damaged by very high blood sugar levels.

People with diabetic retinopathy may notice no changes to their vision at first, but over time retinopathy can lead to blurred vision, glare sensitivity and difficulty seeing at night. The condition usually affects both eyes.

Watch the video below to learn more about the condition.

The screening for diabetic retinopathy is often done by taking digital photos of the retina with a specialised digital retinal camera. The photos are examined for signs of diabetic retinopathy. A decision is then made as to whether treatment or extra follow up examinations are required. Premium contact lenses that offer maximum comfort are recommended to temporarily manage the visual impairment after diagnosis.

Diabetic retinopathy is graded in three forms, according to its severity.

  • early stages, referred to as background diabetic retinopathy;
  • maculopathy, when the condition is beginning to affect the central vision;
  • proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which in severe cases can lead to blindness.

In time, diabetic retinopathy can lead to glaucoma or retinal detachment. Early intervention can prevent sight-threatening diabetic problems, so don’t delay. Contact an ophthalmologist now for an appointment to ensure your vision remains healthy.

In addition to regular eye examinations, people living with diabetes can also follow these simple guidelines to help protect their sight.

diabetic retinopathy prevention

  • Keep blood sugar levels under tight control. People who keep these levels closer to normal are less likely to develop retinopathy.
  • Control high blood pressure. Having hypertension can make eye problems worse. Ideally BP should be 130/80 or lower.
  • Quit smoking. Smoking is a high risk factor for developing macular degeneration.
  • Ensuring your eyes are examined regularly by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. This is to detect any changes occurring due to diabetes.
  • Wear quality contact lenses with high water content as prescribed by your doctor.

For more information on diabetic retinopathy, here is a link to an excellent webpage.

How to Make Pores Smaller

How to make pores smaller

Women have long struggled in front of the mirror with the predicament of large pores. It’s challenging to achieve a flawless look when skin looks like and orange peel. Enlarged pores not only seem to swallow makeup, but allow skin oils to surface throughout the day ruining whatever is left. The good news is that making pores smaller is doable.

Make pores visibly smaller with the latest developments

Aware of the need, skin care experts have come up with products and treatments that can minimize large pores; some are fast and effortless remedies while others involve dedication or expense. Establish the time and money to devote and choose among the instant gratification of makeup products, the dedication of a skin care routine, or the long lasting dermatologist solution.

Prep skin’s surface for a quick way to minimize the look or pores

For immediate, but temporary results, prepare skin’s surface with face primer. Primers have come a long way since their introduction and keep getting better and better. A primer, worn on its own or under makeup, minimizes the look of pores, resulting in a smooth, practically flawless complexion. Always apply primer after moisturizer, let it set before applying foundation or blush.

Some products to try: Too Faced Primed and Poreless Face Primer, Amazing Cosmetics Anti-Aging Face Primer, Pur Minerals See No More Pore Minimizer, or Yves Saint Laurent Top Secrets Pore Refining Skincare Brush. Please note that continuous use of any of these products will not shrink pores forever, their effectiveness is limited to the period of time worn.

Make time for a pore shrinking routine

Keeping pores clear will make them less pronounced. Maintain pores free of dirt, sebum, dead skin cells, and bacteria that congest and expand pores with a strict skin care regimen. The regimen below can do wonders to keep pores under control.

Cleanse skin daily with products containing alpha hydroxy and salicylic acids that exfoliate and decongest pores. Some great brands on the market are, Neutrogena Pore Refining Cleanser, DDF-Doctor’s Dermatologic Formula Salicylic Wash 2%, Perricone MD Citrus Facial Wash, and Bliss no ‘zit’ sherlock purifying cleanser + toner.

  • Use toner after cleansing to disinfect and tighten pores and remove residue cleansers might leave behind. Toners to try are, Neutrogena Pore Refining Toner, Perricone MD Intensive Pore Minimizer with Alpha Lipoic Acid & Salicylic Acid, Neaclear Liquid Oxygen Facial Toner, and Boscia Clear Complexion Tonic.
  • Scrub away dead skin cells that clog pores. Exfoliate two to three times a week using exfoliating products such as Burt’s Bees Natural Pore Refining Scrub, Strivectin SD Instant Retexturizing Scrub, Dermalogica Skin Prep Scrub, or Clarisonic Skin Care System.
  • Purify and tighten pores with a mask. Try Queen Helene Mint Julep Masque, Formula 10.0.6 Deep Down Detox Ultra Cleansing Mud Mask, or University Medical Acne Free Therapeutic Sulfur Mask.
  • Treat and prepare skin. Before moisturizing consider treatments like Murad Pore Refining Gel, Perricone MD High Potency Amine Complex Face Lift, or Boscia Skin Refining Treatment.
  • Moisturize, nourish, and protect pores and create the perfect barrier against pollutants. Good moisturizers to try are Philosophy Hope In A Jar Oil-Free, Peter Thomas Roth Max Anti-Shine Mattifying Gel, or Olay Moisturizing Vitamin Complex-Fragrance Free.

Shrink pores with the magic of medicine

Advances in dermatology have led to new devices and techniques that excel at correcting skin conditions.When it comes to making pores disappear -for a long time- visit a doctor’s office. Dermatologists and plastic surgeons have the ultimate weapons to shrink those pesky pores and prevent their return.

There are many treatments, including lasers, injectables, and peels that are excellent at diminishing or totally eradicating enlarged pores. Among the best developments that can impressively shrink and tightens pores are Fraxel Repair CO2 and Erbium lasers, Botox, and Jessner Peels. Consult a board certified dermatologist or plastic surgeon to find out which treatment will work for you.

Stop struggling in front of the mirror, reducing the appearance of large pores is possible. There are many solutions to make pores smaller. Choosing the correct method lays with your ability to devote time, money or effort on products and treatments to refine skin.

Botox – Medical Treatment for Wrinkles

The Botulinum toxin is used to minimize the appearance of skin creases, frown lines, and crow’s feet. It is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. It is one of the most poisonous substances known and occurs naturally in spoiled food such as meat and fish products. When the toxin is isolated and purified, it can be used as an effective medication.

Botulinum neurotoxin works by blocking neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release in the muscles resulting in progressive muscular weakness.

Botox is the brand name of botulinum neurotoxin type A used for cosmetic purposes. Cosmetic skin treatment with Botox was developed by dermatologic surgeons in 1987.

Botox - Medical Treatment for Wrinkles

Cosmetic Uses of Botox

The skin of the face and neck develop an aged look due to effects of sun damage, gravity, sleep lines and muscular action. Years of squinting and frowning can leave deep wrinkles between the eyebrows and may extend to the bridge of the nose. These defects also may appear across the forehead and at the corners of the eyes as “crow’s feet.”

Botox is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of the lines between the eyebrows and also can be effectively used for “off-label” indications in other facial areas.

Botox injections reduce facial lines by temporarily interrupting the connections between the underlying nerves and muscles. With decreased muscular contractions, the overlying skin smooths, decreasing the appearance of skin creases and preventing new creases from developing.

Injections of Botox are done with very small amounts of the toxin at several points along the muscle with a very thin needle. Patients usually notice a clinical effect 1-3 days following injections and the effect maximizes by 1-2 weeks.

The effects of the toxin usually last 3-6 months and then resolve as the body produces more of the protein that was inactivated by the toxin. Additional injections are done at that time to regain the clinical effect.

Some patients do not respond to injections. Those with lines or wrinkles caused by sun damage and age-related changes are among this group. Some patients may theoretically have neutralizing antibodies in their blood from prior exposure to the toxin that can be present in spoiled food. Secondary non-responders respond initially but lose the response on subsequent injections due to developing antibodies against the toxin.

Risks and Adverse Effects

Botox has a very good safety record when treatments are done by a trained doctor. Negative effects are generally mild and transient and include the following:

  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Rashes at sites distant from the injection

The actual injections can cause some mild pain, swelling, bruising, headache and redness.

The most common adverse event is unwanted weakness in facial muscles. This usually resolves in several months or sooner in most individuals.


Patients should not use Botox if there has been a prior allergic reaction to the medication. Injections should not be done in areas of infection or inflammation. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are not advised to receive the injections.

Relative contraindications include those with neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis. Medications such as aminoglycosides, penicillamine, quinine and calcium channel blockers should be monitored.

Medications such as blood thinners like aspirin, other nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin (Coumadin) and heparin should be stopped 7-14 days prior to injection if medically safe to do so.

Preparation for Injections

Prior to receiving injections, patients should receive a complete physical exam and review their medical history with the doctor.

A review of all medications being taken should be done.

Patient expectations and a review of what Botox can and can’t do for you should be covered with the doctor.

The Pros and Cons of Breast Cosmetic Surgery

Pros and Cons of Breast Cosmetic Surgery

Breast surgery is a very popular form of cosmetic surgery, which enables women to change the size, shape and firmness of their breasts. However, all surgery has potential health risks, making it important not to enter into such cosmetic surgery procedures lightly.

Why Choose Breast Surgery?

There are many reasons as to why women decide that breast surgery is for them. Some women are unhappy that their breast size is too small, while others seek to have large breasts reduced. Those who have been through childbirth and have breastfed their babies, may wish to have their breasts made firmer. There are also medical reasons behind forms of breast surgery, for example women who have been through a mastectomy as a result of breast cancer, may choose to have breast reconstruction surgery.

What are the Different Types of Breast Cosmetic Surgery?

The four main types of breast surgery, include breast enlargement, breast reduction, breast lift and breast reconstruction. While breast enlargement, sometimes known as breast augmentation is usually undertaken to increase small breasts, it may also be used to correct asymmetrical breasts. Breast lifts help to raise and reshape breasts, with breast reduction decreasing breast size. In contrast to other forms of breast surgery, breast reconstruction usually requires several different procedures, in order to make the breasts appear as natural as possible.

Key Benefits of Breast Enlargement, Breast Reduction and Breast Reconstruction

Breast cosmetic surgery can help women who are suffering both physically and emotionally as a result of breasts being very small, too large or having gone through the trauma of a mastectomy during treatment for breast cancer. In The Cosmetic Surgery Companion, Mariconda (2010) highlights key benefits of breast surgery, to include the following:

  • reduce sagging/drooping
  • improve overall appearance
  • relieve symptoms such as back/neck/breast pain
  • correct a difference in size between breasts
  • improve self-esteem, self-image, self-confidence
  • have breasts more in proportion to your body

Potential Health Risks of Breast Enlargement Surgery

All surgery has risks, especially when general anaesthesia is required, with breast enlargement surgery typically resulting in 2-4 weeks recovery time. Key health risks associated with breast enlargements or breast augmentation surgery, as identified by Mariconda (2010), may include as follows:

  • scarring
  • sore, swollen, hard breasts
  • infection
  • changes in skin/nipple sensation
  • ripples, creasing on skin
  • unevenness in breast size/shape

What is Breast Revision Surgery?

Breast revision surgery, also known as breast implant revision, involves removal or replacement of breast implants, or making changes in order to correct previous surgical procedures. As recognised by Mariconda, key reasons why women may require breast revision surgery, include the following:

  • implant leakage
  • implant rupture
  • capsular contracture
  • changes in size
  • changes in shape
  • dissatisfaction with surgery results

As highlighted above, breast cosmetic surgery may be done to increase or decrease breast size, as well as to reconstruct following a mastectomy. Before undertaking breast surgery, it is important to consider the pros and cons, as potential health risks can be serious.

Plastic Surgery and Face Lifts – Giving You a Younger Appearance

Face Lift

Face lifts are normally favored by the over-forties age group. A skillful surgeon can remove years from a person’s appearance by performing this procedure.

Who will Benefit from a Face Lift

People who are suffering from premature aging will see good results from a face lift. The surgery is targeted at reducing the effects of sagging flesh and wrinkled skin.

What Can a Face Lift Accomplish

A face lift can help by reducing the looseness in facial skin and improving the appearance of creases and heavy jowls. The removal of these problems can cause a person to look several years younger.

What Can a Face Lift Not Do

A face lift cannot completely remove frown lines, crow’s feet and other deep lines. Other procedures are available that can help target these areas.

Preparing for a Face Lift

Ask questions about what the surgery involves. It is best not to smoke for several weeks before and after surgery as it can affect the ability of the body to heal. Wounds may not close properly and skin may die along the incisions. Some surgeons suggest washing the hair with an antiseptic shampoo to sterilise the scalp area.

How Long Does the Surgery Take

Plastic Surgery

A face lift can take as long as three to four hours, depending on the level of work that needs to be done. The surgeon marks out the surgical lines while the patient is awake and uses these as a guide.

Steps of a Face Lift

  1. The plastic surgeon follows these basic steps:
  2. Incisions are made in the skin
  3. The skin is lifted and peeled back from the face
  4. Underlying tissue and muscle is lifted and tightened
  5. Fat may be sculpted or removed from jowls, jawline and face
  6. Skin is redraped over the face and trimmed to fit
  7. Drains are inserted and the head and neck are wrapped in soft dressings and bandages

Is a Face Lift Painful

There is very little pain after a successful face lift and it can easily be controlled by appropriate pain medication.

Possible Complications of a Face Lift

Nerve damage can occur and this varies from areas of numbness to more severe damage that causes palsy and muscular weakness. Hair loss occasionally occurs around the incisions but this is easy to hide with the correct hairstyle. Infection is always a possibility but can be treated easily if caught in time.

A face lift is major surgery and may be accompanied by other procedures such as a brow lift or rhinoplasty. The results generally last a life time as excess skin has been removed and the effects will continue to be visible.